NHS England aims for hepatitis C elimination by 2025

NHS England announced this week that it aims to eliminate hepatitis C by 2025 – if it can negotiate 'best value for money' deals with the pharmaceutical industry in a new round of tendering for direct-acting antivirals due to take place in February.

NHS England already operates a 'no cure, no fee' deal with pharmaceutical companies. The money saved has allowed more people to be treated, including re-treatment of people with advanced or decompensated cirrhosis who were not cured by a previous course of direct-acting antiviral treatment.

Approximately 160,000 people are estimated to have hepatitis C in England. To achieve elimination by 2025 NHS England will need to increase the number of people treated each year. The World Health Organization defines elimination of hepatitis C as a 65% reduction in hepatitis C virus-related deaths and a 90% reduction in new infections by 2030, with 80% of eligible people treated by 2030.

Achieving this target by 2025 implies either that more money will be made available, which is highly unlikely, or that NHS England is looking for a very substantial cut in the price of direct-acting antivirals.

Public Health England says that approximately half of all people with hepatitis C may have been diagnosed in England and Wales, but according to Charles Gore, chief executive of the Hepatitis C Trust, “We have at least 100,000 people to find.” According to estimates released by the Polaris Observatory at the World Hepatitis Summit in November 2017, at least 10,000 people will need to be treated each year to achieve elimination by 2030. This number would need to rise to at least 16,000-17,000 a year to achieve elimination in 2025. But the Polaris Observatory warns that unless rates of diagnosis improve the number of people treated could fall to 5000 a year by 2020.

NHS England plans to increase the number of people treated for hepatitis C to 13,000 in the year beginning April 2018, Professor Graham Foster announced earlier this month. A review of Operational Delivery Networks for hepatitis C treatment in England, published by the Hepatitis C Coalition in December 2017, indicated growing concern among healthcare professionals about how to identify new people in need of treatment.

NHS England says that it wants to collaborate with the pharmaceutical industry to identify more people living with hepatitis C in need of treatment. If the treatment budget is not elastic, this implies that what NHS England hopes to secure is an agreement similar to the one obtained by the Australian government in 2016.

The Australian deal committed the government to spend AUS$1 billion on direct-acting antivirals up to 2020, specified a heavily discounted price per treatment course, and placed a maximum cap on expenditure each year but no cap on the number of people who could be treated. The expenditure cap effectively allows free treatment for each additional patient once the annual budget is spent. As a result of the high enrolment on treatment, the deal has resulted in a cost per treatment of around £3100 to £3700 (5400 to 6500 euros) in 2016 in Australia, compared to a cost between £15,000 and £20,000 per treatment course in the United Kingdom.

Calculations of the cost of production of generic versions of direct-acting antivirals presented at recent international scientific meetings show that a 12-week course of treatment with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir can be manufactured for $79, suggesting the scope for reductions in the cost of branded products.

The Australian deal incentivises new diagnoses and new treatment starts. A recent inquiry conducted in Scotland, led by the Hepatitis C Trust, shows that numerous parts of the health system will need to be encouraged to improve hepatitis C diagnosis, including substance misuse services, prison, general practitioners, pharmacies and accident and emergency departments.

Hepatitis B and secondary liver cancer

Hepatitis B virus is widespread in Asia. Approximately 7% of Chinese people were estimated to have chronic hepatitis B infection in 2006. Several countries in East Asia have also observed sharp increases in colorectal, or bowel, cancer. A total of 376,000 new cases were diagnosed in China in 2015. Metastasis (spread) of colorectal cancer to other sites, most frequently the liver, is a strong predictor of poor survival after diagnosis and up to 25% of people with colorectal cancer have already suffered metastasis to the liver by the time they are diagnosed.

A Chinese study of people diagnosed with colorectal cancer found that people with chronic hepatitis B infection (HBsAg positive) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with metastasis of colorectal cancer to the liver at the time they were first diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Although the number of people with chronic hepatitis B and metastasis to the liver in this study was relatively small, the investigators found that metastasis was more than twice as likely to be present at the time of diagnosis.

The study also found that more advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis seemed to be protective against the metastasis of colorectal cancer in those with chronic hepatitis B.

The findings indicate the need for greater vigilance regarding colorectal cancer in people with chronic hepatitis B, and also emphasise the need for greater awareness of hepatitis B infection and of the need for screening for hepatitis B, the study investigators say.

Smoking and survival after liver cancer diagnosis

Smoking has been found to increase the risk of developing liver cancer in some, but not all, studies and to increase the risk of liver cancer in some studies of people with viral hepatitis. Its effect on survival after a diagnosis of liver cancer is unclear.

A Swiss study, published recently in the journal Liver International, has reported that people with viral hepatitis who smoked after a diagnosis of primary liver cancer had significantly shorter survival than non-smokers. Smoking did not affect survival after a diagnosis of liver cancer in people without viral hepatitis.

The study found that liver cancer developed at a younger age in smokers (59 vs 66 years) and that smokers with viral hepatitis had poorer survival after diagnosis (18 months vs 3.2 years). Liver cancer attributable to hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) or alcohol was more common in smokers.

“Based on these findings, smoking cessation should be considered for incorporation into the disease management for patients with HBV or HCV [with hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC],” the authors conclude. They point out that around 80% of HCC cases worldwide are probably attributable to viral hepatitis.

Real world data on treatment success in people with HIV/HCV co-infection

Clinical trials of direct-acting antiviral treatment for hepatitis C show that treatment is just as effective in people who have co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV as it is in people with hepatitis C alone. But, are these results being seen in people with co-infection who are being treated in everyday clinical practice, especially those with more advanced liver disease?

Around one-third of people with HIV have co-infection with hepatitis C in Spain. A study looking at all people with co-infection treated for hepatitis C in the vicinity of Valencia in 2015, published recently, shows that cure rates are just as high in clinical practice as in clinical trials. Nearly half of those treated had genotype 1a and just over half had cirrhosis. The study found that 93.5% of all people treated achieved a sustained virologic response. 87.5% of people with cirrhosis achieved a sustained virologic response and no one with cirrhosis who completed a 24-week course of treatment and underwent follow-up testing failed to be cured of hepatitis C.

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