is usually transmitted through contaminated drinking water or food;
occasionally also through living closely with someone who has the infection. It
is possible that genotype 3 of the hepatitis E virus can be transmitted through
contact with animals (e.g. pigs or deer) or through eating meat in which the
hepatitis E virus has not been killed by thorough cooking.
is found relatively rarely in Europe, but may
be under-diagnosed. It is more often found in the Middle East, southeast and
central Asia, Africa and South America. People
who travel to or live in high-risk areas are most affected by hepatitis E.
Consuming uncooked meat or offal from wild or domestic pigs could also be a
A vaccine against hepatitis E has been available in China since 2012, but not in
Europe. In high-risk areas, drinking water should be disinfected and
uncooked foods should be avoided. Transplant patients and people living with
HIV or AIDS should avoid raw or inadequately cooked meat (especially pork).
A strain or subtype of a virus. For hepatitis C, genotypes are identified by a number (e.g. genotypes 1,2,3,4,5 and 6); some subtypes have also been identified (e.g. genotypes 1a and 1b). For hepatitis B, genotypes are identified by a letter (A to H). The genotype may influence the risk of disease progression for both viruses; some genotypes respond differently to some treatments.